A new dimension in home shopping

Over the last four years, the British Museum has been producing 3D models that can be viewed by anyone online. The roots of this work can be traced back to the Arts and Humanities Research Council funding of theMicroPasts crowdsourcing project with University College London, which produced 3D objects for academic research. The Museum continued its 3D output by using native mobile phone applications to publish a selection ofobjectson the Sketchfab platform, with many available to download under a Creative Commons Non Commercial licence.

All of this work was based around the principles of Open Science and the premise of being cheap, quick and easy to replicate for anyone. We used a technique called photogrammetry(multiple photographs taken in a strategic pattern around the object) and the resulting output was rendered in 3D software. Ideally anyone, an individual or institution, should be able to replicate our methods to create 3D representations of archaeology or artworks.

Many have questioned the worth of these 3D models what value do they add? My answer is that they are a natural extension of museum object documentation. There is a clear progression from line drawing to photography, and now to 3D representations which can be audio described, annotated, reused and embedded. There is also the potential for them to be monetised, which could potentially create a valuable income stream to fund some of the Museum’s air max 90 pas cher work.

We have identified and tested several paths, including Virtual Reality (VR) experiences, working with the gaming and other creative industries. However, one of the most exciting air max command ones was working in partnership with the British Museum Company the Museum commercial arm.

Some of the models used in Room 3 displays.

Together we discussed the concept and process of creating facsimiles for sale in the British Museum shops, both online and on site. We had previously worked with Oxfordshire based 3D company ThinkSee3D, who had provided replicas for our successful Asahi Shimbun DisplaysCreating an ancestor: the Jericho Skull, Containing the divine: a sculpture of the Pacific god A’a and Moving stories: three journeys. We worked in partnership with ThinkSee3D using a series of nike air max air max pas cher bw new techniques to produce high quality items for sale in the Museum Grenville Shop. They were produced directly from models created in house and drawn from the collection of models on Sketchfab.

It quickly became apparent that printing models in plastics would not be very environmentally air max 90 friendly and that gypsum prints would be too costly, so we decided to use a method of casting directly from a mould derived from a 3D model.

A statue of Roy, High Priest of Amun.

ThinkSee3D have now developed a range of products for sale, starting with the Statue of Roy, Priest of air max 95 Amun(shown above as a 3D capture from which the mould was created). It has been cast from reusable moulds in Jesmonite nike air max classic bw (a water based resin commonly used in museums), with the potential to produce in the material of your choice bronze, clear resins, or even chocolate! You can now buy a resin replica of the statue of Royfrom the Museum Grenville Shop or online for 300.

A new shopping experience

[X] Google Chrome Cliquez sur le menu Outils. Sélectionnez Options. Cliquez sur l’onglet Options de base. Danslasection »Page d’accueil », sélectionnez « Ouvrir cette page », puis saisissez « [URL de la page coutante] » dans la zone de texte. Cliquez sur Fermer. Sélectionnez Options Internet. Cliquez sur l’onglet Général. « [URL de la page coutante] » dans la zone de texte. Sélectionnez Options. Cliquez sur l’onglet Général. Danslasection »Démarrage », saisissez « [URL de la page coutante] » dans la zone de texte. Sélectionnez Préférences. Cliquez sur Général. Danslasection »Page d’accueil », saisissez « [URL de la page coutante] » dans la zone de air max 90 pas cher texte. Sélectionnez Préférences. Cliquez sur l’onglet Générales. Dans le menu déroulant « Démarrage », sélectionnez Démarrer avec air max bw pas cher la page d’accueil. Danslasection »Page d’accueil », saisissez « [URL de la page coutante] » dans la zone de texte. Cliquez sur le bouton OK.

The mammoth Mall of Africa, due to open for business in April next year, will be the crowning glory of South Africa’s strong shopping centre industry. The country already ranks in the global top 10 in terms of highest number of shopping centres as well as total floor space.

According to research from Urban Studies, which conducts feasibility studies nike air max 90 for shopping centres, South Africa has the highest number of shopping centres chaussures air max in the world after the United States, Japan, China, Canada and the United Kingdom. South Africa ranks sixth in the world when it comes to number of shopping centres, with over 2 000 shopping centres. When it comes to floor space South Africa ranks 7th highest globally, with 23 million square metres.

Valued at R5 billion, the 115 000m Mall of Africa project will be the largest shopping mall ever built in South Africa in a single phase. The so called « super regional » mall will be the heart of the Waterfall City development, located in Midrand between South Africa’s administrative capital, Pretoria, and its economic capital, Johannesburg.

The growth in shopping centres has surged upward since 1994 when the first democratic elections took place in South Africa.

According to a June 2015 publication from Urban Studies, there were close to 40 million people in South Africa at that time. About 76% had a household income of less than R2 500 per month and a Living Standards Measure (LSM) level of 1 to 4 represented more than 80% of the market. Urbanisation was at 54%. There were only 36 shopping centres larger than 30 000m. Total shopping centre floor area was little more than four million square metres.

Since then, the population has grown to 55 million and 64% of the population is urbanised. The LSM 1 4 now accounts for 22% of all households and higher LSMs of 8 to 10 have grown from 17% to 25% (which represents 1.6 million more households in these categories). Metros house 66% of the total mall space in South Africa. The shopping centre industry has more than 600 000 permanent jobs, and another 500 000 jobs are indirectly involved with the industry.

The growth in expenditure from black households is a substantial driver supporting growth of shopping centres.

« The spending by black households as a percentage of the total spend increased from 35% in 1993/4 to 57% in 2013/14, » the Urban Studies publication said. « The fact that the total expenditure cake for the total population is increasing, is one of the main features of shopping centre development in South Africa. »

A study from the University of Cape Town’s Unilever Institute of Strategic Marketing found South Africa’s black middle class increased from 1.7 million people in 2004 to 4.2 million in 2012 and its spending power was estimated at R400 billion a year.

Personal income in this segment has grown by 30% per capita since 2004, and household income went up by 34%.

The Unilever Institute’s study did show that spending was often not frivolous and 65% of the new black middle class own their own homes and send their children to model C or private schools.

However, despite poor GDP growth outlooks, economists expect consumer spending to continue to grow and to support air max bw pas cher economy growth in 2015.

The development of South African malls, and consumer spending, is valuable in attracting international brands to local shores. The Mall of Africa development, with some 300 stores, announced last month that it is already over 90% let, and includes a host of international fashion retailers.

« Cotton On, H and Forever 21 will be opening flagship stores, with other international brands like Forever New, River Island, Mango, Tommy Hilfiger and Versace also on offer, » the mall developer, Atterbury, said in a release last month. « A number of local brands Foschini Group, Mr Price and Truworths are also opting to make the Mall of Africa their new flagship stores, while anchors for the mall will include national favourites Woolworths, Edgars, Checkers and Game. »

Atterbury says construction is on schedule and progressing apace ahead of its opening in April next year. The Mall of Africa is co owned by Attacq Limited (80%) and Atterbury (20%).

The Mall of Africa’s key advantage is easy access to it from both sides of the N1 highway, with the first free flow interchange of its size in Africa at the nearby Allandale Road exit. The upgrade of the Allandale interchange cost Sanral approximately R800 million. Atterbury Waterfall Investment Company has also undertaken various infrastructure developments since 2008 and continues to upgrade the K101 and the Allandale Road.

Not limited to South African boundaries, Attacq and Atterbury (with local Namibian partners) at the end of last year also opened the air max tn R1 billion Grove Mall of Namibia the largest shopping centre ever to be developed in the country and spanning some 55 000m.

It is Namibia’s first regional shopping centre with more than 120 retail stores, restaurants and service nike air max pas cher outlets, 28 of which are new to Namibia. Stores include familiar South African names such as Woolworths, Ster Kinekor, Pep and FNB.

a piano and a family mystery

It’s no surprise that a lot of people are excited and intrigued by the discovery of the so called ‘Piano Hoard’. We grow up with stories of hidden treasures and the brave or lucky people that find them, and it can be appealing to imagine ourselves in their places. The Piano Hoard story has the added excitement that it relatively recent this is not a long buried assemblage of war booty or grave goods, but a large sum of money hidden in plain sight less than 100 years ago. So what happened to the original owner and why was the hoard hidden in the first place?

First, to take a step back, it should be explained that despite its adopted title the Piano Hoard is not a collection of musical instruments(!) but rather a group of 913 gold sovereigns and half sovereigns found stashed under the keyboard of a Broadwood Sons upright piano, made in 1906. Martin Backhouse had been asked by the piano’s owners, the Bishop’s Castle Community College, to tune the newly acquired instrument and in the course of doing so he removed the keys and noticed seven cloth wrapped parcels in spaces which should have been empty. Looking inside one, he noticed the gold coins and immediately informed the school. The school, knowing they hadn’t put the coins there, then in turn contacted HM Coroner for Shropshire, John Ellery, as required by law under the Treasure Act 1996.

This sequence of events often perplexes people, who usually associate coroners with investigations into sudden and suspicious deaths (which in truth is a air max safari major part of their role). But in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, coroners also nike air max 90 act as the Crown’s representative in cases of potential ‘Treasure’, a legal term defined by the Treasure chaussures air max Act (Scotland has a separate law of Treasure Trove).

It is also why you are reading about the Piano Hoard in a British Museum blog. The British Museum acts as the Treasure Registry for all finds of potential Treasure from England, and performs the secretarial work for the Treasure Valuation Committee (TVC), an independent body that recommends values for Treasure finds to the Secretary of State. Furthermore, the British Museum coordinates the Portable Antiquities Scheme(PAS), a network of regional Finds Liaison Officers (FLOs) who record archaeological finds discovered by the public on a free to use database.

Importantly for this story, FLOs also support coroners in their Treasure work, and the FLO for Shropshire and Herefordshire, Peter Reavill, has been heavily involved in this case. Peter took receipt of the parcels from the school and carefully opened them all, looking for clues about their owner and meticulously cataloguing the coins.

Finds Liaison Officer Peter Reavill recording part of the ‘Piano Hoard’. Portable Antiquities Scheme/The Trustees of the British Museum. Photo: Emily Freeman.

The point of the Treasure Act is to ensure that important archaeological finds are reported, allowing everyone to benefit from the knowledge of their discovery, and to allow public collections (museums) the opportunity to acquire them. If a coroner agrees that a find meets the criteria for Treasure, then it belongs to the Crown, who may place it in an appropriate museum, with the finder and landowner being rewarded financially.

Most reported Treasuremeets the criteria by being more than 300 years old, made of gold or silver, or constitutes a group of coins more than 300 years old or prehistoric base metal. Over 1,000 discoveriesof this type are reported and logged by the British Museum every year, and hundreds acquired by museums, enriching our culture and increasing our understanding of the past.

Part of the hoard. Portable Antiquities Scheme/The Trustees of the British Museum. Photo: Peter Reavill.

But what about the Piano Hoard? The gold coins found within it date to 1915, so are much less than 300 years old. However, the Treasure Act also stipulates that items of any age, made substantially of gold or silver, whose original owners or heirs are unknown, and which are deemed to have been deliberately hidden with the intention of recovery, are also ‘Treasure’. This was the heart of the matter for the Coroner, who had to determine whether the Piano Hoard fitted all of these criteria. In practice, very few gold and silver items that are less than 300 years old do, because either their owners or heirs are known, or it is impossible to say whether they’d been hidden with the intention of recovery most Treasure finds are thought to be chance losses.

Gold sovereign from the reign of Queen Victoria (1898 Jubilee Bust of Victoria), from the hoard. Portable Antiquities Scheme/The Trustees of the British Museum. Photo: Peter Reavill.

But central to the Piano Hoard’s story is that it certainly seems to have been put away for safekeeping. The coins are clearly made substantially of gold (the coins are all 91.7% precious metal), so the main concern for the Coroner was to investigate any information about a possible owner of the hoard or their heirs. Peter Reavill investigated leads in the archives of the piano maker, the Essex Record Office and even the Shredded Wheat company (whose packaging was found wrapped around one parcel of coins). He concluded that air max bw pas cher the coins couldn’t have been hidden earlier than the late 1920s, but nothing identifying the owner of the coins was traced.

Working with Peter and the British Museum, the Coroner issued several press releases appealing for more information. Over 40claimants and others came forward with information but as we now know, none could prove their claim to the Coroner satisfaction. As such, the Coroner decided at the inquest on 20 April 2017 that the hoard met the criteria for Treasure.

That means that the Piano Hoard is now owned by the Crown, but air max pas cher that ownership is only exercised if a museum wishes to acquire all or part of the hoard. Saffron Walden Museum has expressed an interest in a small element of the hoard, as it would seem that it must have spent most of its life in that town.

The British Museum air max 90 will now organise for the coins to be valued, first by an independent expert from the trade and then by the Treasure Valuation Committee. Saffron Walden Museum will have to pay that value to acquire the coins, with the money going to Mr Backhouse and the community college as a reward, should they wish to claim it (some rewards are waived by the finders and owners). The rest of the coins will be returned to them to do with what they will.

Some of the key people involved talk about the Piano Hoard discovery:

Despite the fact that the heirs of the original owner of the coins haven’t been identified, the Piano Hoard tells an intriguing story. Collections of gold and silver coins from the 19thand 20thcenturies are not terribly unusual discoveries, and as recently as 2011 a hoard of gold sovereigns was found in a field in Twinstead, Essex. But that hoard consisted of just over 200 coins and indeed most others seem to be of similar or smaller amounts.

The Piano Hoard might be the largest hoard of its type found to date. It appears to have been collected over several decades and then kept safe after Britain air max tn first went off the gold standard in 1914, but it was only tucked away in the piano in the late 1920s at the earliest. Could this have been a reaction to the Depression, or events leading up to the Second World War, or to that conflict itself? What happened to the person who amassed this considerable wealth? Part of whythis discovery strikes a chord with the public is that we may never know the definite answer to these questions, and we are free to wonder.