‘Forest and Dove’

Forests appear frequently in Ernst’s works and recall his feelings of the ‘enchantment and terror’ of the woods near his childhood home. Forests are a potent symbol in German tradition, and were also adopted by the Surrealist group as a metaphor for the imagination. In this work, a small dove, which Ernst liked to air max enfant use as a symbol to represent himself, is trapped among menacing nike air max 90 trees. The shapes are created using a technique he called ‘grattage’, in which paint is scraped across the canvas to reveal the imprint of objects placed beneath.

Presented by the Friends of the Tate Gallery 1962With Galerie Van Leer, Paris; with Galerie Schulthess, Basle; Dr Robert Schnell, Zurich, 1947; with Galerie Suzanne Bollag, Zurich, 1960; with Roland, Browse and Delbanco, London, 1962; Friends of the Tate GalleryMax Ernst, Galerie Van Leer, Paris, March April 1927 (11) as ‘Forêt et Colombe’; Max Ernst, Kunsthalle, Bern, August September 1956 (40) as ‘Forêt des Arrêtes’; Natur und Kunstform, Kunsthalle, Basle, September October 1958 (not in catalogue); Max Ernst and Etienne Cournault, Roland, Browse and Delbanco, London, April May 1962 (5, repr.) as ‘The Forest’Lit: Werner Spies, Sigrid and Günter Metken, Max Ernst: Werke 1925 1929

(Houston france air max Cologne 1976), No.1195, p.208 repr. as ‘Forêt et Colombe’Repr: Uwe nike air max bw M. Schneede, The Essential Max Ernst

(London 1972), pl.204 as ‘Forest and Dove’; Simon Wilson, Surrealist Painting

(London air max pas cher 1975), pl.38 in colour

Max Ernst was haunted from childhood by a feeling of enchantment and terror induced by the all enveloping atmosphere of the forest near which he was born. Following his discovery of the technique of frottage in 1925 he made many paintings in air max tn pas cher which he explored these hallucinations. Some of the pictures in this series include the rising or setting sun; this is one of a number in nike air max 90 pas cher which the only sign of life is a solitary bird.

‘Men Shall Know Nothing of This’

Ernst studied philosophy and psychology in Bonn and was interested air max bw pas cher in the alternative realities experienced by the insane. This painting may have been inspired by the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud’s study of the delusions of a paranoiac, Daniel Paul Schreber. Freud identified Schreber’s fantasy of becoming a woman as a ‘castration complex’. The central image of two pairs of legs refers to Schreber’s hermaphroditic desires. Ernst’s inscription on air max safari the back of the nike air max 90 painting reads: ‘The picture is curious because of its symmetry. The two sexes balance one another.’

Inscribed on the back with a commentary and dedication:

Purchased from Gordon Onslow Ford through the Richard Feigen Gallery, Chicago (Grant in Aid) 1960André Breton, Paris (gift from the artist); Seora Eva Sulzer, San Angelo, Mexico; Gordon Onslow Ford, Inverness, CaliforniaExposition Internationale du Surréalisme, Galerie Beaux Arts, Paris, January February 1938 (67); Max Ernst, Tate Gallery, September October 1961 (35, repr.)André Breton, Nadja

(Paris 1928), air max 2013 p.164, repr. p.174; Werner Spies, Sigrid and Günter Metken, Max Ernst: Werke 1906 1925

(Houston Cologne 1975), No.653, p.339 repr.; Geoffrey Hinton, ‘Max Ernst: « Les Hommes n’en Sauront Rien »‘ in Burlington Magazine, CXVII, 1975, pp.292 9, repr. p.297Cahiers d’Art, 1936, p.170; John Rothenstein, The Tate Gallery

(London 1966), p.172 in colour

The back of this picture is inscribed with a mysterious and enigmatic prose poem,

which can be translated as follows:

OF THIS MEN SHALL KNOW france air max NOTHINGMax nike aire max Ernst confirmed to the compiler in February 1970 that this poem was written by himself. It is followed by a dedication to Andre Breton, to whom he gave this picture.

At the top of the painting there is a mysterious ‘sun’. From it rays descend to circling astral bodies ‘the earth’ (covered by a disembodied hand) with attendant planets. Above, the lower halves of a man and woman copulate in space. An upturned ‘crescent moon’/’parachute’ supports a ‘little whistle’. From an arid desert of viscera and stones rise two strange nike air max pas cher protuberances, strongly suggestive of ambi sexual phalli. All this takes on a distinctly Freudian character.

Ernst had studied philosophy and psychology at the University of Bonn from 1909 to 1914. In 1913 he had read Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams

‘The Burning of the Houses of Parliament’

The catastrophic fire which destroyed much of the Palace of Westminster in central London, including the Houses of Lords and Commons, broke out on the evening of 16 October 1834. Apart from the medieval Westminster Hall, which was saved from the fire, most of the rest of the site on the west bank of air max bw pas cher the River Thames was eventually cleared for the construction of the iconic Victorian Houses of Parliament complex by air max enfant Barry and Pugin which still functions as the seat of British government.1

Turner is recorded as having been an eye witness among thousands,2 though the extent of his recording the event directly has long been open to question. Certainly, of the two scenarios offered by Victorian curator William White that the present work was ‘evidently executed either on the spot entirely during the fire, or else worked out immediately after’3 the first can safely be dismissed. Whether the composition ‘proves’4 that the artist had been air max femme pas cher at this viewpoint on the nike air max 90 pas cher night is debatable; see the discussion of related pencil sketches and prints by other artists below. In 1835, Turner exhibited two major oil paintings of the event as seen from the Thames: The Burning of the House of Lords and Commons, 16th October, 1834, at the British Institution (Philadelphia Museum of Art),5 and The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, October 16, 1834, at the Royal Academy (Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio).6 A watercolour vignette of a view through an arch of Westminster Bridge (Museum of Outdoor Arts, Englewood, Colorado),7 was engraved for The Keepsake in 1836.

The view in the present work is north over Old Palace Yard from the Abingdon Street end, with St Margaret Street beyond. On the left is the Perpendicular Gothic Henry VII Chapel at the east end of Westminster Abbey; the buildings on the near side do not survive. To the east across the street, the central third of the composition depicts the south elevation of the range housing committee rooms adjoining the south and west sides of Westminster Hall, the prominent gable and pinnacles of which are shown above.8 The façade was in an Italian palazzo style with a rusticated ground floor, regular windows, a cornice and balustrade, as shown in an 1834 coloured print by John Shury of the House of Commons [and] House of Lords before the fire (Parliamentary Art Collection, London). Turner shows the fire burning nike air max classic air max tn bw within, although the shell at least survived. The whole cluster around the great medieval hall was subsequently demolished, the area to its west nike air max 90 pas cher now being occupied by a lawn with a statue of Oliver Cromwell.